An installation commissioned by Artwalk Porty
Joppa Bandstand, Portobello, Edinburgh
September 26 & 27, 2020
international maritime flag, flown from a vessel to indicate that it declares itself free of quarantinable disease, and that it requests free pratique, or permission to enter a port
Braemar, Boudicca, Black Watch and Balmoral are owned by a company that is based in the UK, but are registered in and fly the flag of The Bahamas, a common and legal practice known as flying a flag of convenience.
All merchant ships must be registered to a nation state; British cruise ships are often registered abroad, which is usually cheaper and means that they may be subject to less stringent safety and employment laws, environmental safeguards and certifications for crew.
The practice began during the prohibition era, when the US government banned the transportation of alcohol, and people sought alternatives to get around the law.
Nowadays, crew and passengers are subject to the laws of the flag state while sailing.
Under previous owners has also been called Royal Viking Sky, Birka Queen, Sunward, Golden Princess, SuperStar Capricorn, Hyundai Keumgang and Grand Latino
Under previous owners has also been called Royal Viking Star, Westward and Star Odyssey
The Bahamas is a popular choice of convenience flag for cruise ship companies, as are Panama and Liberia in West Africa.
Most cruise companies choose names for their ships that suggest a strong association with a country that in reality they have little to do with.
Among other advantages for ships registered in The Bahamas, the country imposes no tax on income. Any profit the cruise line makes is untaxed, neither is there any tax on capital gain if a vessel is sold at a profit.
In July 2020, some of the world’s biggest cruise ship companies received low-interest emergency loans from The Bank of England and the UK Treasury. Those included Royal Caribbean, which received £300 million and is incorporated in Liberia, and Carnival, which received £25 million, and is incorporated in Panama.
Under previous owners has also been called Crown Dynasty, Crown Majesty, and Norwegian Dynasty
Under previous owners has also been called Crown Odyssey and Norwegian Crown
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